This paper provides an improved energy policy to achieve Brazil's pledge to reduce 37% of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2025. It proposes that Brazil immediately invest in an electric public bus system because its full electrification could decrease almost 42% of carbon emissions in transportation, Brazil's second- largest GHG emitting sector. Brazil can replicate the political-economic structures that managed the electrification of the public bus fleet in Shenzhen, China, by creating a state-owned enterprise to facilitate the governments, electricity suppliers, electric vehicle manufacturers, and bus operators in this pursuit.


Brazil’s decarbonization plan for its transportation sector aims to increase biofuels, which drive from top crops that incentivize deforestation and increase carbon emissions. Brazil's climate plans deviate from the Paris Agreement, so its regulations may lock its sectors into a carbon-intensive system. Brazil’s transportation sector is the highest carbon emitter, making it a critical area to decarbonize, excluding land-use. Brazil’s transportation sector must immediately integrate electricity energy by employing e- buses to effectively decarbonize the transportation sector and achieve its Paris Agreement commitments. Brazil’s electricity mix is approximately 90% renewable energy, but the transportation sector’s energy mix lacks any electric energy. E-buses based on renewable energies emit less carbon dioxide and have lower Global Warming Potentials than current biofueled vehicles. E-buses are also more cost-effective and energy-efficient than diesel buses as they cost 69.76% less to power and 47.39% less to maintain every year...

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Author: Samraggi Hazra